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Edu. Statutory bodies
The origin of the Indian Education Department dates back to pre-Independence days when for the first time a separate Department was created in 1910 to look after education. However, soon after India achieved its Independence on 15th August. 1947, a full fledged Ministry of Education was established on 29th August 1947. The nomenclature and responsibilities of the Education Department has undergone changes from time to time since Independence. At Present the Ministry has three Departments namely
1. Department of Secondary and Higher Education
After independence, education became the responsibility of the states. The Central Government's only obligation was to co-ordinate in technical and higher education and specify standards. This continued till 1976, when the education became a joint responsibility of the state and the Centre.
The Education Commission under the Chairmanship of Dr. D. S. Kothari, the then Chairman, University Grants Commission, began its task on October 2,1964. It consisted of sixteen members, eleven being Indians and five foreign experts. In addition, the Commission had the benefit of discussion with a number of internationally known consultants in the educational as well as scientific field.
In 1976, education was made a joint responsibility of the states and the Centre, through a constitutional amendment. The center is represented by Ministry of Human Resource Development's Department of Education and together with the states, it is jointly responsible for the formulation of education policy and planning.
NPE 1986 and revised PoA 1992 envisioned that free and compulsory education should be provided for all children up to 14 years of age before the commencement of 21st century. Government of India made a commitment that by 2000, 6% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) will be spent on education, out of which half would be spent on the Primary education.
Central Government is responsible for major policy relating to education in the country. It provides grants to the UGC and establishes central universities in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaration of Educational Institutions as 'Deemed to be University' on the recommendation of the UGC.
Presently there are sixteen (18) Central Universities in the country. In pursuance of the Mizoram Accord, another Central University in the State of Mizoram is planned. There are 99 Institutions which have been declared as Deemed to be Universities by the Govt. of India as per Section of the UGC Act, 1956.
The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) is one of the Ministries specified in the First Schedule of the above Rules, and consists of the following two Departments:
The Minister of Human Resource Development heads the Ministry of HRD. Currently, he is assisted by a Minister of State each in the two Departments.
State Governments are responsible for establishment of State Universities and colleges, and provide plan grants for their development and non-plan grants for their maintenance.
The coordination and cooperation between the Union and the States is brought about in the field of education through the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE).
Special Constitutional responsibility of the Central Government: Education is on the 'Concurrent list' subject to Entry 66 in the Union List of the Constitution. This gives exclusive Legislative Power to the Central Govt. for co-ordination and determination of standards in Institutions of higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions.
There are various Educational Statutory bodies in India, these are namely:
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