The player’s brain, which was examined by the Australian Sports Brain Bank* run by Royal Prince Alfred Hospital in partnership with the University of Sydney’s Brain and Mind Centre, was found to have chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE.
La Trobe University concussion researcher Associate Professor Alan Pearce, who co-authored the report published overnight in Acta Neuropathologica Communications, said: “Australian contact sports organisations should be applauded for the changes made in recent years to minimise head knocks.
“But more needs to be done. This is an important occupational and public health issue.”
At present, CTE can only be diagnosed confidently by examination of the brain after death.
The only known likely risk factor for CTE is repetitive head injury, in the form of concussions, as well as blows that do not cause signs or symptoms known as sub-concussive impacts.
Report senior author – founder of the Australian Sports Brain Bank, head of neuropathology at RPA and Clinical Associate Professor at the University of Sydney – Associate Professor Michael Buckland said: “This player played more than 350 games over 19 years in the West Australian and Victorian football leagues.”
The player was diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease at the age of 64.
“Our findings demonstrate severe CTE occurring in conjunction with intermediate level Alzheimer disease pathology.”
This case is the second Australian rules football player brain examined by the Australian Sports Brain Bank and the first to be diagnosed with CTE.
The authors write that while they can make no claims of CTE incidence in Australian rules football based on this case, the distinctive and severe pathology has not previously been encountered in their busy clinical practice outside of former contact sports players.
“While we know that the gameplay of Australian rules football is very different to that of other contact sports, the changes related to CTE were strikingly similar,” Associate Professor Buckland said.
“A knock to the head is a knock to the head, regardless of the circumstances in which you get it. CTE is real, and it is here in Australia. We need to address it as a priority. Claims of a lack of demonstrated causality are unhelpful, and arguably irrelevant when assessing a public and occupational health issue such as CTE.”
Last year CTE was found in the brains of two former first grade rugby league players, including Canterbury Bulldogs coach and player Steve Folkes.
In 2013, Australian rugby union player and coach Barry “Tizza” Taylor was the first Australian sportsperson diagnosed with CTE, after his brain was sent to the Boston University brain bank for analysis.
CTE was first described in boxers and was originally called punch-drunk syndrome. CTE has since also been found in the brains of former players of American Football, ice-hockey and soccer.
The Australian Sports Brain Bank was established in March 2018, as part of the Concussion Legacy Foundation Global Brain Bank initiative, in order to examine and research CTE in brains donated by the public. Last year the Australian Sports Brain Bank’s Victorian branch was launched, with Associate Professor Pearce taking a lead role coordinating clinical assessments of future donors.
To date, more than 250 athletes have pledged their brains for research, including former boxer Jeff Fenech.
“We encourage all athletes, their families and friends to sign up,” Associate Professor Buckland said.
“It is only with the support of athletes and sporting codes that we will fully understand the factors that cause CTE, how to minimise them, and how to effectively treat this disease,” Associate Professor Buckland said.