Recession Deepens in Montenegro as COVID-19 Pandemic Threatens Jobs and Poverty Reduction in Western Balkans
Washington: The COVID-19 pandemic has plunged the Western Balkans region into a deep recession, with drops in both domestic and foreign demand, coupled with disruptions in supply chains, forcing all six countries in the region into negative growth territory for 2020. According to the World Bank’s latest Regular Economic Report (RER), economic growth is forecast to contract by 4.8 percent in 2020, 1.7 percentage points lower than forecast in April. A second, stronger wave of the pandemic since mid-June is delaying economic recovery in the region. Travel restrictions and social distancing measures have also depressed growth in those countries more reliant on tourism.
Montenegro is projected to experience the strongest recession among the Western Balkans region, estimated at 12.4 percent, mainly due to its heavy reliance on tourism. The strong second wave of the pandemic has resulted in the worst tourism season on record. As a result of the crisis, already elevated public debt will soar to a new high, requiring very vigilant fiscal and debt management in years to come. On the assumption of the pandemic being contained by summer 2021, the economy is forecast to grow strongly in 2021 but it will be 2022 before the full loss in GDP will be recovered.
“In the medium term it will be vital to keep Montenegro on a firm debt reduction and reform path in order to maintain macroeconomic sustainability and enable a strong and sustainable recovery”, says Emanuel Salinas, World Bank Country Manager for Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. “The pandemic has exposed Montenegro’s key vulnerabilities, many of which have become urgent to address. These include careful fiscal management through enhanced public spending efficiency, enabling a private sector level playing field which will foster entrepreneurship, innovation, and broad-based growth, and making institutions stronger and more accountable.”
The pandemic is further challenging labor markets in the region and threatening to undermine the progress that countries have made on improving the population’s welfare. By June, unemployment in the region had risen by a half of a percentage point, erasing 139,000 jobs. An additional 300,000 people are estimated to have fallen into poverty in Albania, Kosovo, Montenegro, and Serbia – a significant number, but less than half of the total that would have fallen into poverty had response measures not been put in place, notes the report.
“Like in much of the rest of the world, the COVID-19 pandemic is continuing to hit people hard in the Western Balkans, threatening both the health and economic well-being of people in all six countries,” says Linda Van Gelder, World Bank Country Director for the Western Balkans.
“As bad as this situation is, it would have been much worse had governments not taken swift measures from the outset of the crisis. The first priority remains getting the health crisis under control and limiting the economic damage. Policymakers in the region will then need to focus on strengthening their economic fundamentals for a resilient recovery.”
According to the report, all six countries in the region were quick to introduce policies to protect lives and livelihoods. The introduction of large job-retention schemes, including employee subsidies, helped arrest some of the worst impacts of the pandemic on employment, while social assistance programs, such as cash transfers, helped protect the most vulnerable populations in the region in the face of lockdowns and other restrictions. Despite these measures, however, the gains in labor force participation made in the region over the last few years have now been erased and progress on poverty reduction is being imperiled by the crisis. Compounding these challenges are soaring fiscal deficits in the region, as governments continue to spend more to counter the economic contractions in the face of plummeting revenues. With the end of the economic crisis uncertain, pressure on labor markets and incomes is likely to continue for some months.
“Apart from improved health systems and robust social protection mechanisms, policymakers in the region will need to take measures to enhance human capital, build stronger institutions and strengthen the rule of law. The unfortunate situation of needing to spend more in a time of declining revenues puts additional pressure on governments in the region to prioritize fiscal sustainability, including through improving public spending and strengthening tax compliance,” says Linda Van Gelder.
The report acknowledges that the speed of recovery, in the short term, will depend on how the pandemic evolves, the availability of a vaccine that allows for the normalization of economic activity, and a sustained recovery for the region’s main trading partner – the European Union (EU).